Armenia: thousands of killings in war with Azerbaijan, 1988-1994; marginally genocide (largely ordinary warfare). *Australia: Aboriginals; small and uncertain numbers, but, as proportion of total, an enormous genocide.Deliberate destruction of culture (banning of language, destroying hunting and foraging grounds, etc.) much more prevalent than killing, but plenty of killing in early decades.Major conclusion: In all cases, regimes took power through conflict, or rarely through democratic election, but often directly and solely through whipping up hate. Afghanistan: 1978-present: “tens of thousands” when kingdom fell to communist government and it consolidated in and after 1978 (Totten and Bartrop 4); 228,000 by 1987 (Rummel); countless since.Economic factors such as poverty, downward mobility, and local inequalities sometimes appear to be causative, but not reliably enough to predict anything. Impossible to sort out genocide from ordinary war or to get accurate counts, but well over a million people have died violently, most of them noncombatants.Fascism is much less durable; there are currently no really genocidal fascist regimes, in spite of several elected fascist governments (including that of the US as well as Turkey, India, Hungary, and perhaps a few other cases). Military dictatorships are especially prone to fade away. Most, however, did not; they killed in spite of constitutional prohibitions.Myanmar’s is tenacious, but civic action led to the end of military rule in South Korea, Taiwan, and many other countries, and a rather chaotic alternation of militarism and civic government in Thailand. They are sometimes called “imperfect” or otherwise suspect, but Hollie Nyseth Brehm (2015, 2017) points out that they may be especially high-risk simply because they are democracies—the government being insecure and subject to defeat in elections.
(The Taliban are largely Pashtun/Afghan.) These include killing of 50,000 in 1996-2001 with apparent intent to exterminate the Hazaras or at least destroy their culture. 50,000, during the fascist-dominated period, Jews and religious leaders, during wartime; later another 50,000 or more, under communism (especially during consolidation, but then ongoing under Enver Hoxha), when any and all dissidents were targeted.
Belgium: Largely before our time frame but overlapping with it, King Leopold II oversaw the killing of perhaps as many as 8,000,000 in his empire from 1886 to 1908. 100,000 killed, largely by Slobodan Milosevic’s Serbian government, also massacres by Croatians and Bosnians.
Muslims were singled out for “ethnic cleansing,” the euphemism (for genocide or expulsion) that was used in this case.
If they are consumed by exclusionary passions, they may move to killing.
Several brief episodes of terror in small nations are omitted here.